"Falls are not an ordinary risk of life."
It is always a cause-effect relationship.
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Falls are the world's second leading cause of death from accidental or unintentional injuries.
An estimated 424,000 people worldwide die from falls each year, with more -than 80 per cent of those deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries.
Those over 65 suffer more fatal falls.
Each year there are 37.3 million falls, the severity of which requires medical attention.
Preventive strategies should emphasize education, training, the creation of safer environments, the prioritization of fall-related research and the establishment of effective policies to reduce risks.
According to a report of the World Health Organization WHO on the falls, carried out in October 2012, it emphasizes:
Falls are defined as involuntary events that cause the body to lose its balance and hit the ground or other firm surface that stops it, according to WHO
An accident is an event, regardless of the human will, characterized by the sudden effect of a strange force, which may or may not reach a person, and which causes the person to have to request later medical care, regardless of bodily or mental damage (DADO, 2011)
The D.A.D.O. emerges as an instrument for public authorities to act on the mechanisms that cause accidents and to be able to prevent them. In this way, vigilance and prevention must be in the hands of all parties involved (security professionals, relatives, educators, doctors, etc.) and work according to the responsibilities, taking the necessary actions to prevent them. It is about the safety of the products through systematic market controls, to detect unsafe products to be able to start the control and inspection mechanisms, which in some cases entails the opening of files, alerting of products that do not comply with the safety regulations.
From the data that appears in the program D.A.D.O., we are interested in those that are related to falls at the same level when developing activities of walking, daily life, sports, playful or educational, and how they affect the population according to ages and causes. Another fact that is extracted is the incidence of the falls before and after the approval of the CTE in 2006, and the introduction of the slipperiness values that must comply with the pavements according to the uses
Table 2 shows the percentages of the evolution of the mechanisms of accidents from the year 1999 to the year 2011. A total of 2,576,601 injured individuals were registered of the total population of 47,190,493 (according to total population standard municipal 2011), considering that 5.4% of the Spanish population has suffered an accident defined as DADO We can say that about 2.7% of the population has suffered an accident due to falls.
Falls due to slips, trips or landslides, and their consequences, have a high economic and social impact (death, permanent or temporary disability, hospitalization, inability to attend the workplace or school), among others.
The same report gives us the type of activity that was developing at the time of the accident. In this case, we focus on walking activity in general and other activity not specified, being 17.6% the percentage of accidents that occur when we walk. To this percentage we must add the falls suffered while we play sports or recreational and leisure activities (shopping areas, transport, sports centers, etc.), accounting for 34.7%
Falls have associated a series of lesions affecting the lower limbs in greater percentage. Contusions 28.5%, sprains 22.8%, fractures 20.0% or dislocations 9.9%, are some of the most important injuries.
The study also analyzes the product that caused the fall, establishing groups and subgroups. Consider the floor / pavement as a sub-section within the parts of the building, allocating 16.91%.The document D.A.D.O. that the main products causing injury are stationary furniture (29.8%) and pavement (20.3%). It adds that within the vital activities, the origin of the accidents is the ground or pavement, arriving at the 30.7%. Transformed, external and ground surfaces cause more than 50% of injuries during sports.