"Falls are not an ordinary risk of life."
It is always a cause-effect relationship.
Falls by ages.
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It is important to highlight the percentage of falls that occur during leisure time. In this regard, says Hernán Ariel Villagra, focusing on the sports practice of people with disabilities. "It is important to keep in mind that the user or participant in physical and / or sports activity should feel comfortable and secure in the facility where he / practice". "People with acquired brain damage, and especially those who have trained in the rehabilitation phase, still present some drawbacks in the supports (step-gait) if the tasks are complex and the support surface is not the more suitable.
The sports practice of people with impaired balance is generally performed in safety conditions, using accessible facilities whose pavement conditions or floors allow to improve the static and dynamic balance, being a clear objective in the injured spinal cord. "(Villagra Astudillo, Hernán Ariel.
The characteristics of the pavements are decisive to avoid falling. Its surface finish will be key, hence the importance of achieving specific regulations. Depending on the characteristics and finishes, the pavement will be able to avoid and reduce the sliding speed and thus the individual's reaction, increasing or decreasing the imbalance and thus avoiding the fall.
A person with reduced physical, sensory and cognitive capacity will demand more demanding properties in order to make a safe and comfortable ride than a person without any alteration.
The risk of falling from a person with reduced mobility or greater than 75 years is not the same as that of a young person. The mobility of the individual and their perception of the environment make safety a key factor for their development, intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is important that the user generates a safe ride. This safety will reduce the level and number of falls.
The cycles of normal and pathological human march give us a vision of how the gait is different for each individual. Influences such as age, weight, gait speed, physical, sensory and cognitive abilities of people. These factors influence the contact of the individual with the pavement, resulting in a different coefficient of friction for each case, but always within safety limits that allow unifying and establishing comfort points for a safe ride. It is therefore necessary to define a minimum coefficient of friction that would prevent slippage. (Zamora Álvarez, Tomas, 2012)
Given the distribution of the population, the age of the user is closely related to the activity they can perform.
Individuals in the younger age groups (up to 24 years of age) are the most likely to suffer accidents type D.A.D.O., since they are not yet part of the labor market and the vast majority of accidents are of a sports and recreational nature.
The individuals located in the intermediate age groups (up to 65 years of age), Table 5, present a percentage of accidents lower than their population weight. This group is composed of individuals immersed in the labor market and the percentage of activities allocated to leisure and leisure activities is lower than the rest of the age cohorts. When we focus on the older age group, we find a group of individuals that do not belong to the active population, so the time allocated to activities type D.A.D.O. increases. (D.A.D.O. 2011).
The reality is that many falls occur because of the inability of the individual to adapt to the conditions offered by the environment, to which must be added the sensory and physical capacity of the person.
The risk of falls is accentuated by age, with mobility problems, related to vision, gait, balance and responsiveness after a trip or slip, so that older people increase the probability, as demonstrated by the DADO reports, to suffer falls that is aggravated by the facility of suffering serious injuries as a consequence
Trips and slips are the main cause of falls, so we must look for mechanisms to ensure that a pavement is safe, non-slip and comfortable.
We must take into account the visibility and perception of the environment by people. We are able to modify the forces exerted on the ground to adapt and change the running pattern depending on the characteristics of the itinerary. (Zamora Álvarez, Tomas, 2012)
The creation of safe and comfortable spaces could have an objective component, related to the slip value of the pavement, and a subjective one that corresponds to the user.